The Four Species
And you shall take…the fruit of splendid trees (etrog), branches of palm trees (lulav)and boughs of leafy trees (hadas) and willows of the brook (aravah) and you shall rejoice before the Lord your God for seven days.
–Leviticus 23:40 (Torah portion for the first day of Sukkoth)
It is said that the lulav, which tastes good but has no smell,
symbolizes those who study Torah but do not possess good
deeds. The hadas, with no taste, but satisfying smell, symbolizes
those who possess good deeds but do not study Torah. The aravah
has neither taste nor smell, symbolizing those who lack both Torah
and good deeds. The etrog has both a good taste and good smell,
symbolizing those who have both Torah and good deeds. In binding
together the lulav, hadas and aravah and holding them next to the tasty,
fragrant etrog, we celebrate the unity of the Jewish people.
Sukkoth: Holiday of the senses. And grand delusions.